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Cultural references to the novel The Catcher in the Rye

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The 1951 novel The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger has had a lasting influence[1][2] as it remains both a bestseller[3] and a frequently challenged book.[4][5][3] Numerous works in popular culture have referenced the novel.[6][7] Factors contributing to the novel's mystique and impact include its portrayal of protagonist Holden Caulfield;[1] its tone of sincerity;[1] its themes of familial neglect,[8] tension between teens and society,[8][3] and rebellion;[8] its previous banned status;[9] and Salinger's reclusiveness.[1]

The Catcher in the Rye has inspired "rewrites" which have been said to form their own genre.[10] On the other hand, there are examples of similarities between the novel and other works that were not intended by their authors,[8][11][12] which suggests that the novel is "present, at least spiritually, in ... any story line that involves quirky young people struggling to find their places in a society prone to reward conformity and condemn individuality."[3]

While the novel is linked to several murders and murder attempts, it has been claimed that the novel's overall effect on society is "far more positive than negative."[3]

The novel also helped popularize the slang verb "screw up".[13]

ShootingsEdit

The most well-known event associated with The Catcher in the Rye is arguably Mark David Chapman's shooting of John Lennon.[14] Chapman identified with the novel's narrator to the extent that he wanted to change his name to Holden Caulfield. On the night he shot Lennon, Chapman was found with a copy of the book in which he had written "This is my statement" and signed Holden's name.[15] Later, he read a passage from the novel to address the court during his sentencing.[16] Daniel Stashower speculated that Chapman had wanted Lennon's innocence to be preserved by death, inspired by Holden's wish to preserve children's innocence despite Holden's later realization that children should be left alone.[16]

After John Hinckley, Jr.'s assassination attempt on Ronald Reagan in 1981, police found The Catcher in the Rye among half a dozen other books in his hotel room.[17]

Robert John Bardo, who murdered Rebecca Schaeffer, was carrying the book when he visited Schaeffer's apartment in Hollywood on July 18, 1989.[18]

As numerous murders have been speculated to be connected to the novel, the main character of the film Conspiracy Theory is a paranoid skeptic with an uncontrollable urge to purchase it.[15]

FilmsEdit

Although Salinger had refused a film adaptation, many Hollywood films have based characters on Holden Caulfield.[8][19] Holden has been identified as "one of the most reproduced characters on film." Furthermore, many such films reference each other.[20]

Anthony Caputi, a specialist in dramatic literature at Cornell University, claims that the novel inspires both "variations" and "imitations", comparing it with several coming-of-age films.[8]

While screenwriter Mike White thought the influence of the novel may rise in Hollywood,[8] former CEO of The WB Jordan Levin said that the Academies behind the Emmys have lost touch with public tastes like Catcher in the Rye.[21]

  • Rebel Without a Cause (1955) is widely regarded as one of the first American films to delve into teenage psyche, and there are several similarities to 'Catcher in the Rye', such as both works being told from the perspective of an aimless teenage boy with a troubled family life who is struggling with growing up. Other similarities include doomed teenage romance, living in a metropolitan area, and homosexual interpretations.
  • In Annie Hall (1977), Woody Allen says that he only has books with the word "death" or "dying" in them. Diane Keaton holds a copy of The Catcher in the Rye and says, "What about this one?"
  • The film Taxi Driver (1976) follows Travis Bickle, who seems to be a representation of Holden Caulfield, only older and more confrontational. The list of similarities is long, from analyzing the fact that both of them obsess over women and try to protect the innocence of children, to the fact that both of them purchase a prostitute without actually having sex with her. They both live in New York City, and though they only see all of the filth in the city (as they are incredibly pessimistic), and vow to leave, neither of them actually departs. Mark David Chapman named The Catcher in the Rye as the reason for his assassination of John Lennon, and the man who attempted to assassinate Ronald Reagan, John Hinckley Jr., said that he was obsessed with Taxi Driver, and he owned a copy of Catcher among other books.
  • In The Shining (1980), Wendy is seen reading the novel, a foreshadowing of alienation similar to that of Holden.[23]
  • The 1989 film Field of Dreams is based on the W. P. Kinsella book Shoeless Joe. In the film, one key subplot involves the main character, Ray Kinsella (played by Kevin Costner), kidnapping noted radical book author Terence Mann (played by James Earl Jones). The Mann character is described as having written some of the most controversial books of the 1960s, including The Boat Rocker. In the original book that this film is based on, the Kinsella character actually kidnaps Salinger. According to the DVD extras, the author and the film producers acknowledge the fact that Salinger begrudgingly allowed his namesake to be used as a character in the book, but asked that he not be portrayed on film in Field of Dreams. So the producers and screenwriter Phil Alden Robinson, in consultation with the author Kinsella, changed the Salinger role to that of the fictional Mann. In a direct homage to the book, the Mann character initially denies, then admits, about using the name John Kinsella in one of his short stories, and that John Kinsella is the name of Ray's father. Salinger used both the name Ray Kinsella in a short story, and later the name Richard Kinsella as one of Holden Caulfield's classmates in The Catcher in the Rye.
  • In Conspiracy Theory (1997), Mel Gibson's character is programmed to buy the novel whenever he sees it, though he never actually reads it.[15]
  • In Chasing Amy (1997), Holden McNeil is named after Holden Caufield and Banky Edwards is named after Ed Banky, the basketball coach at Pencey.
  • In Finding Forrester (2000), William Forrester is the reclusive writer from New England who wrote 1 great book "Avalon Landing" and left the public wanting more and wanting answers. The plot has been used many times but references about youth and loss of Forrester's book can clearly be paralleled to Salinger's work. Also being Set in NYC and a very well known prep school are both main settings for CIR.
  • Chasing Holden (2001) is named after Holden Caulfield.[30] The protagonist Neil relates his life to Holden's, skips class to go to New York City, goes on a road trip to New Hampshire to find J. D. Salinger, and contemplates killing Salinger with a gun.[31]
  • Screenwriter Mike White regards the novel as "part of a literary trend that goes back to Goethe's 'The Sorrows of Werther' (1774) ... I don't think Salinger discovered it. He just did the quintessential American version."[8] He thought the influence of the novel may rise in Hollywood,[8] and two of his 2002 films reflect this. In Orange County, protagonist Shaun searches for the professor who wrote the book that changed his life.[8]
  • Igby Goes Down (2002), originally intended to be a novel, has been interpreted as being inspired by The Catcher in the Rye,[20][19][32][33] but director and screenwriter Burr Steers said it is not a direct influence and the story is more of an autobiography.[8] On the influence of The Catcher in the Rye, Steers "liken[s] it to being a musician and being influenced by the music ingrained in you, like the Beatles."[8]

TelevisionEdit

  • In season two of Aqua Teen Hunger Force, featured an episode titled "Frat Aliens". In it one of the aliens asked about Holden Caulfield.
  • In the Boy Meets World episode "Poetic License: An Ode to Holden Caulfield", Shawn has written a poem called "An Unpublished Manuscript for J.D. Salinger". Without knowing the author, Cory asks, "And haven't we had just about enough of Catcher in the Rye? I mean, what's [Salinger] written lately?"
  • Catcher in the Rye was mentioned three times on the FOX sitcom, Family Guy:
    • On the episode, "The Kiss Seen Around the World," a blond guy keeps following Peter around and calling him a "phony" after being tricked into believing that Peter can play a keyboard at a toy store.
    • On the DVD version of the episode, "Peterotica," one of the erotic novels Peter writes is called "Catcher in the Eye."
    • On the season eight episode, "Jerome is the New Black," during Quagmire's rant about everything he hates about Brian, Quagmire brings up the fact that Brian buys women copies of Catcher in the Rye, then lectures them on how deep and complex Holden Caufield was, when in reality (according to Quagmire), Caufield was a spoiled brat whom Brian foolishly idolizes.
  • The Dilbert episode "The Return", the telephone operator for the "Comp-U-Comp" computer company uses the pseudonyms "Holden Caulfielder" and "Caulden Holdenphone" when Dilbert calls him to ask about the delivery of an incorrect item.
  • The South Park episode "The Tale of Scrotie McBoogerballs" is centered on Catcher in the Rye's controversial reputation (particularly when Butters becomes brainwashed into killing John Lennon and Ronald Reagan after reading it), how its place in literature as a "banned book" is called into question in modern times (Stan, Kyle, Cartman, and Kenny read the book and don't see what's so shocking about it), and how the story has been analyzed and interpreted by critics and readers.
  • In the episode of American Dad, "Irregarding Steve", Steve is seen wearing a red hunting cap when he's about to leave for New York with Roger, an allusion to Holden Caulfield.

Video gamesEdit

  • In the action game Postal 2, one of the errands is to return a library book titled Catch Her in the Eye.
  • In the game Love Plus, bookish high-school student Rinko Kobayakawa quotes from The Catcher in the Rye" at one point, referring to the relationship between Holden Caulfield and his sister Phoebe. It is noteworthy that Kobayakawa herself resembles Holden Caulfield in her contemptuous attitude towards society and those around her.

BooksEdit

  • John Fowles's 1963 novel The Collector uses The Catcher in the Rye as "one of the most brilliant examples of adolescence" in popular culture, possibly under a moral light.[39] In it, Miranda encourages her kidnapper Clegg to read Catcher, thinking he might relate to Holden Caulfield's alienation.[15] However, Clegg finds Holden's actions unrealistic given Holden's wealth and status, and "[doesn't] see much point in it." In the film adaptation of The Collector, this conversation and Clegg's attitude toward the novel and popular culture is subdued.[40] The Collector novel has itself been linked to several serial killers.[15]
  • Lawrence Block wrote a novel called Burglar in the Rye (1999) in his series on burglar Bernie Rhodenbarr. The plot focuses on an auction of a reclusive writer's letters,[41] and Bernie works to track down the character based on J. D. Salinger.
  • The Frank Portman novel King Dork is centered around 'life-changing' books, The Catcher in the Rye most prominently. The protagonist is arguably a Holden Caulfield-esque outcast, but at the same time hates The Catcher in the Rye. The protagonist criticises fans of the book, calling them the Catcher Cult, and says that pretending to love The Catcher in the Rye is a surefire way to get better grades. However, in the end he says that he likes the novel. An obvious reference to the book is King Dork's jacket cover, which is a 1985 Bantam copy of The Catcher in the Rye, ripped to shreds and scribbled over with the actual title of the book.
  • In W.P. Kinsella's 1982 novel Shoeless Joe, the main character discusses the significance of The Catcher in the Rye and later kidnaps J. D. Salinger.
  • In Galt Niederhoffer's novel A Taxonomy of Barnacles (2005), Bridget and Billy think about Holden's question as to the whereabouts of ducks during winter.[42]
  • Author Megan McCafferty admits to drawing many similarities between the protagonist of her novel Sloppy Firsts, Jessica Darling, and Holden Caulfield. Like Holden, Jessica is very alienated and critical of society.
  • Robert Rosen's biography Nowhere Man: The Final Days of John Lennon contains a description of Mark David Chapman's sentencing hearing, in which the murderer reads from The Catcher in the Rye. The section is called "Chapter 27," a reference to Chapman's belief that by killing Lennon he'd write the missing chapter of The Catcher in the Rye in Lennon's blood.
  • John David California wrote 60 Years Later: Coming Through the Rye (2009), an unauthorized sequel in which 76-year-old Holden escapes a retirement home for a journey in New York.[43]

Comic stripsEdit

  • The Frazz character Caulfield is named after Holden.[44]
  • In St. Swithin's Day, the teenage protagonist shoplifts a copy of The Catcher in the Rye from a bookshop so it can be found in his pocket "when this is all over."
  • In Mike Allred's graphic novel The Oddity Odyssey, his character Madman can be seen reading a copy of The Catcher in the Rye.
  • In Eyeshield 21, Taka Honjou of the Teikoku Gakuen Alexanders is seen reading the book. He is the ace wide receiver/cornerback of Teikoku and has never had to use his true ability.
  • In Bill Amend's FoxTrot, Jason claims his iguana Quincy ate Paige's copy of the book. In a separate strip, Peter is seen reading "Pitcher in the Wheat."

MusicEdit

  • Aesop Rock's song "Save Yourself" contains the line "Naw man it wasn't me, it was Holden Caulfield, brother / I just read and pulled the trigger."
  • The Ataris' song "If You Really Want to Hear About It" from their album End is Forever takes its title from the novel's opening sentence. The final lines paraphrase those of the book with "Don't ever tell anyone anything or else you'll wind up missing everybody." Several other specific references are made within the lyrics.[45]
  • The Bandits of the Acoustic Revolution's song "Here's to Life" on their debut EP A Call to Arms references Holden Caulfield by stating: "Holden Caulfield is a friend of mine, we go drinking from time to time", and later addresses Caulfield's author, J.D. Salinger: "Hey there, Salinger, what did you do? Just when the world was looking to you to write anything that meant anything, you told us you were through. And it's been years since you passed away, but I see no plaque and I see no grave, and I can't help believing you wanted it that way."
  • Beastie Boys's song "Shadrach" contains the rhyme "Got more stories than J. D. got Salinger, I hold the title and you are the challenger."
  • Belle and Sebastian's song "Le Pastie de la Bourgeoisie" contains the line "give yourself up to the allure of Catcher in the Rye."
  • Bloodhound Gang's song "Magna Cum Nada (Most Likely To Suck)" begins with "Why try? I'm that guy Holden Caulfield from Catcher in the Rye, put away 'cause he wasn't all there."
  • Canibus's song "Box Cutter Blade Runner" includes the lines "Have you ever read a book called 'The Catcher and the Rye'? / It so happens I'm looking for a copy I could buy"
  • Clem Snide's song "End of Love" references the book in the line "And the first thing every killer reads / is Catcher in the Rye."
  • The Divine Comedy's song "Gin Soaked Boy" contains the line "I'm the catcher in the rye."
  • Epik High's instrumental album "Soundtrack to a Lost Film" has a song titled "Holden Caulfield".
  • Everclear At the end of the video for "the boys are back in town" the main cast of the film "detroit rock city" (from the movie soundtrack from which the song is taken, burst into a dressing room where art alexis is reading aloud an exert from the final page
  • Everlast's song "So Long" contains the line "So with a tear in his eye, he's gonna catch 'em in the rye."
  • Five Iron Frenzy's song "Superpowers" on their album Our Newest Album Ever! contains the line "Sometimes I feel I'm Holden Caulfield, sometimes Jack Kerouac."
  • The Jonas Brothers' song "Six Minutes" contains the line "Sometimes I feel like I'm a catcher in the rye / Sometimes I just wanna catch her eye."
  • Matthew Good's song "Waiting for the Great Destruction" from his album Left of Normal contains the chorus "Maybe at my funeral they'll say i found the answers / they'll say i had it coming / they'll say i was just sittin' around. Waiting for the Great destruction, I am waiting for Holden Caulfield to call."
  • Green Day's song "Who Wrote Holden Caulfield?" on their album Kerplunk! is based on how frontman Billie Joe Armstrong could relate to Holden Caulfield as an outcast. Screeching Weasel responded to this with the song "I Wrote Holden Caulfield". "Basket Case", one of their most popular songs, is considered to be related to the likeness of Caulfield. The Catcher in the Rye is Billie Joe's favorite book.
  • Guns N' Roses released a song on their 2008 album, Chinese Democracy called Catcher in the Rye. It originally featured Brian May on guitar, but his parts were replaced for the final version. The song is said to be about Mark David Chapman.
  • Indochine's song "Des Fleurs Pour Salinger" (French for "Flowers For Salinger") portrays Salinger as a hermit trying to get away from the world's stupidity, and about the singer wanting to meet him. Near the end of the song, the following quote from the novel is whispered in French: "I thought what I'd do was, I'd pretend I was one of those deaf-mutes. I'd marry this girl, that was also deaf and mute [...] I'd live near the woods but not in the woods." ("Je ferais semblant d’être sourd-muet /Et j’épouserais cette fille /Sourde et muette /On vivra près d’un ruisseau, près des bois /Mais pas dans les bois...")
  • Jedi Mind Tricks's song "Trinity" contains the line "The one who's seated, on the throne within in a forcefield/You'll get tossed and feel lost like Holden Caulfield/Raw deal..." Their song "Put Em In The Grave" contains the line "I'm like Mark David Chapman with a Salinger book/Stalk my enemy and let the fuckin' silencer cook."
  • Paul Kotheimer's 2007 album, "Song About Everything -- Songs 1-50," contains the song "Holden Caulfield."
  • Komeda's song "Catcher" on their album Kokomemedada refers to Holden Caulfield's fantasy. Lyrics include "Who will catch your fall? Who will do it all?" and "There ain't no catcher in the rye."
  • Lyte Funky Ones' (LFO) song "6 Minutes" contains the line "Sometimes I feel like the Catcher in the Rye/ Sometimes I wish that I could catch her eye/ Sometimes I wish that I could be that guy".
  • The Lawrence Arms's song "The Disaster March" on their album The Greatest Story Ever Told contains the lyrics "There was a time and a place that was all full of mistakes. And a face that was all full of shit. I was frustrated and angry. I was more than alive. A catcher in the rye."
  • Local H's song "Mayonnaise and Malaise" contains the line "the catcher in the rye caught a catch-22"
  • The Max Levine Ensemble's song "Love, Capital L" contains the line "and that's how I came to see how Holden Caulfield was your prophet."
  • Nothingface's song "Machination" contains the line "Read 'Catcher In The Rye' a million and one fucking times."
  • The Offspring's song "Get It Right" contains the line "Like Holden Caulfield, I tell myself; There's got to be a better way."
  • Amanda Palmer's song "1.1.94" contains the line "It's very difficult when no one's there to catch you in the rye".
  • Pencey Prep is named after the Holden's school. Several of their songs reference the novel.
  • Piebald's song "Holden Caulfield" contains the lines "where do the ducks go in the wintertime" and "put my hat on and get out of here."
  • John Ralston's song "No Catcher in the Rye" on his album Needle Bed contains the line "Maybe there's no catcher in the rye."
  • The Refreshments song "Good Year" states "I gave my Catcher in the Rye for your Cat's Cradle" The Bottle and Fresh Horses.
  • Ruth Ruth's song "I Killed Meg the Prom Queen" contains the line "She read The Catcher in the Rye."
  • Sarah Slean's song John XXIII contains the line "A plate of stars/Could never take the place of the Boy who swore to catch me/As I run through the rye."
  • Snapcase's song "Lookinglasself" on the album of the same name contains the lines "Tomorrow's world can't die, we've got to be the catchers in the rye."
  • Spandau Ballet's song Code of Love on the album True contains the line, "And when love comes along its just a catcher in the rye. Its hard to make those long term plans.".
  • Sundowner's song "Jackson Underground" contains the line "I was lost in the rye, so lost in the rye, I was lost in the rye."
  • Third Eye Blind's song "Why Can't You Be" contains the line "Like J.D. Salinger/Why Do I Challenge-her."
  • Too Much Joy's song "William Holden Caulfield" on their album Cereal Killers conflates the name of Holden Caulfield with the name of actor William Holden. It contains the lines "I'm afraid of people who like Catcher in the Rye / Yeah, I like it too, but someone tell me why / People he'd despise say, 'I feel like that guy' / I don't wanna grow up, 'cause I don't wanna die."
  • Hailey Wojcik's LP, "Diorama," contains the song, "Holden Caulfield", which she also performs live. It contains the line, "You made me feel like Holden Caulfield, and you acted like such a phony, still I wish that you'd phone me."
  • The comedy duo Adam and Andrew references the novel in their song, "Emo Kid" with the lyrics: "I'm just a bad, cheap imitation of goth/You can read me Catcher in the Rye, and watch me jack off"
  • Your Vegas references the novel in their eponymous song, "Your Vegas" with the lyrics: "The Catcher in the Rye / and the children on the ground / We're all in the lost and found."

PlaysEdit

  • In the Tony Award winning and Pulitzer Prize-winning Broadway musical, Next to Normal, the character Gabe reads a paperback copy of The Catcher in the Rye on the top level of the stage. It remains on the floor of the top level until the end of Act I. Kyle Dean Massey, who played Gabe during the summer of 2009 and is currently in the role, said, "I read about a page a night." The musical, like Salinger's novel, deals with grieving with death as well as suicide. After his April 23, 2010 performance, Massey declared on Twitter that he has finally finished the book.
  • In the Terrence McNally play, Where Has Tommy Flowers Gone, the main character has a speech where he recollects being asked who the "ten most admired men in America" are. The character (Tommy Flowers) responds by answering "Holden Caulfield" ten times. The character Tommy is loosely reflective of Holden Caulfield.

NotesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Jonathan Yardley (2004-10-19). "J.D. Salinger's Holden Caulfield, Aging Gracelessly". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A43680-2004Oct18.html. Retrieved 2007-05-21. ""The Catcher in the Rye" is a maladroit, mawkish novel, but there can be no question about its popularity or influence." 
  2. Barry Roth (1964-01-05). "Brooklyn College". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FB0C17FD345912738DDDAC0894D9405B848AF1D3. Retrieved 2007-05-21. "...the "do you think you'll ever feel about me the way you used to feel about 'Catcher in the Rye'?" influence of the theater and movies often stimulates collegians to read these and other writers." 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Jeff Guinn (2001-08-10). "'Catcher in the Rye' still influences 50 years later" (fee required). Erie Times-News. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=ET&p_theme=et&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0EDCAD301800C85B&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D. Retrieved 2007-12-18.  Alternate URL.
  4. "100 Most Frequently Challenged Books of 1990–2000". American Library Association. http://www.ala.org/ala/oif/bannedbooksweek/bbwlinks/100mostfrequently.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-21. 
  5. List of most commonly challenged books from the list of the one hundred most important books of the 20th century by Radcliffe Publishing Course.
  6. "'Rye' misfit's rugged spirit inspires works" (fee required). The Sacramento Bee. 2001-06-07. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=SB&p_theme=sb&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0EC831DF2A54202C&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D. Retrieved 2007-05-21. ""The Catcher in the Rye" has influenced the work of many writers, filmmakers and musicians. Here's a look at some of the more notable entries..." 
  7. "Sixties to Howl Once Again in College Literature Course" (fee required). Telegram & Gazette. 2001-04-08. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=WO&p_theme=wo&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0EB9EAB0A95F7BFF&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D. Retrieved 2007-05-21. "Mr. Patterson explained his inclusion of a 1952 novel in his "Literature of the Sixties" course this way: "I kept seeing references to Holden Caulfield..." 
  8. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 Nancy Mills (2002-08-25). "Holden Caulfield's many pretenders". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/chronicle/archive/2002/08/25/PK45441.DTL&type=movies. Retrieved 2007-05-21. ""Most young male characters in the movies are based on the character of Holden Caulfield," says Raymond Haberski... "It's been a very steady influence in the last 30 years." 
  9. "Banned Books Offer Classic Opportunities" (fee required). Sarasota Herald-Tribune. 1996-10-23. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=HT&p_theme=ht&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0EAFEA3BF023F923&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D. Retrieved 2007-05-21. "[...] one of the controversial books that has been censored in the past is J.D. Salinger's ``The Catcher in the Rye.' [...] all through his life he'd hear references to Holden Caulfield and his crazy red hunting hat, and if he wanted to understand those references, [...]" 
  10. Louis Menand (2001-09-27). "Holden at fifty". The New Yorker. 
  11. Joy Karugu (2005-11-09). "Novelist Sittenfeld chronicles 'Prep' life". The Daily Princetonian. Archived from the original on 2013-01-10. https://archive.is/4tB2q. Retrieved 2007-12-19. "That's an easy comparison people often make — because of its setting and general topic." 
  12. Dale Peck (2007-09-23). "‘The Outsiders’: 40 Years Later". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/23/books/review/Peck-t.html?pagewanted=print. Retrieved 2007-12-19. "...it’s likely that Hinton’s echo of the testimonial frame Salinger used in “The Catcher in the Rye” (“If you really want to hear about it”) wasn’t consciously intended..." 
  13. William Safire (1990-04-08). "Screwing Up". The New York Times: pp. 2. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CE2DF1138F93BA35757C0A966958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=2. Retrieved 2007-12-20. "Screw up, in this sense, is first found in a December 1942 issue of Yank, and was further popularized in the 1951 Catcher in the Rye, the famed novel by J. D. Salinger: Boy, it really screws up my sex life something awful." 
  14. Leslie Miller, Susan Wlosczyczna, Joh Chetwynd, Gary Levin, Claudia Puig, Mike Snider, Kevin V. Johnson (1999-04-22). "Kids, online and off, feast on violence". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/index/colo/colo22.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-21. "Lindsay Doran, president of United Artists, says, "[...] You can't not like Catcher in the Rye because someone read it and killed John Lennon."" 
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 Aidan Doyle (2003-12-15). "When books kill". Salon.com. pp. 2. http://dir.salon.com/story/books/feature/2003/12/15/books_kill/index1.html. Retrieved 2007-05-21. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 Whitfield, 571–572.
  17. Whitfield, 572.
  18. Linton Weeks (2000-09-10). "Telling on Dad". Amarillo Globe-News. http://www.amarillo.com/stories/091000/boo_tellingondad.shtml. Retrieved 2009-01-13. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Robert Wilonsky (2002-09-19). "Burr, Not Chilly". Phoenix New Times. http://www.phoenixnewtimes.com/2002-09-19/film/burr-not-chilly/. Retrieved 2007-12-19. "Salinger would never allow such a thing, and it's a moot point, to boot. Catcher has been made and remade for decades under various noms de crap..." 
  20. 20.0 20.1 Katrina Onstad (2008-02-22). "Beholden to Holden". CBC News. Archived from the original on 2008-02-25. http://web.archive.org/web/20080225165543/http://www.cbc.ca/arts/film/bartlett.html. 
  21. Michael Schneider (2001-07-12). "Snubbed WB huffy over "uffy"". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117802726.html?categoryid=14&cs=1. Retrieved 2007-12-19. "If 'Catcher in the Rye' were released today, Academy members would look at the book and consider it a dime-store paperback." 
  22. Kirsten Markson (2002-11-03). "The Collector". PopMatters. http://www.popmatters.com/film/reviews/c/collector.shtml. Retrieved 2007-12-19. 
  23. Tom Dirks. "The Shining (1980)". Filmsite.org. http://www.filmsite.org/shin.html. Retrieved 2007-12-18. "... "Wendy" ... who is reading The Catcher in the Rye. [There's a very subtle connection signaled here: the main protagonist in J. D. Salinger's novel Holden Caulfield, is an alienated and haunted teen, similar to Jack Torrance as an adult. Both experience sleep deprivation and dementia as a result.]" 
  24. Rita Kempley (1993-12-22). "Six Degrees of Separation". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/movies/videos/sixdegreesofseparationrkempley_a0a3dd.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-19. "Guare ... expounds upon ... the violent subtext of "The Catcher in the Rye" ..." 
  25. Colin Van Hook (2002-04-16). "BC Professor Directs Six Degrees at Tufts". The Heights. http://media.www.bcheights.com/media/storage/paper144/news/2002/04/16/ArtsReview/Bc.Professor.Directs.Six.Degrees.At.Tufts-237080.shtml. Retrieved 2007-12-19. "...he communicates the play’s similar themes of the loss of imagination to something outside daily life..." 
  26. William A. Henry III (1990-06-25). "Six Degrees of Separation". Time. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,970446,00.html. Retrieved 2007-12-19. "When the intruder starts to analyze The Catcher in the Rye in scholarly jargon, the hosts are spellbound by his vocabulary and miss the fact that his rap becomes comic nonsense." 
  27. Lauren Phillips (2002-04-01). "Color without structure". The Tufts Daily. http://media.www.tuftsdaily.com/media/storage/paper856/news/2002/04/01/UndefinedSection/Color.Without.Structure-1484266.shtml. Retrieved 2007-12-19. "...Paul's frequent references to Holden Caufield's struggles in Catcher in the Rye." 
  28. Frank Rich (1990-07-01). "Stage View; A Guidebook to the Soul Of a City in Confusion". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CE3D9173DF932A35754C0A966958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all. Retrieved 2007-12-19. "...in Paul's view, that J. D. Salinger's touching, beautiful, sensitive story has been turned into a manifesto of hate by assassins like Mark David Chapman and John Hinckley who use Holden Caulfield's social estrangement as an excuse to commit murder." 
  29. Whitfield, 573.
  30. Michael Speier (2001-03-28). "'Holden' catches cast". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117795994.html?categoryid=13&cs=1. Retrieved 2007-05-21. "Title is a reference to "The Catcher in the Rye" protag Holden Caulfield, around whom Kanan's script is based." 
  31. Christopher Null (2002). "Chasing Holden Movie Review". Filmcritic.com. http://www.filmcritic.com/misc/emporium.nsf/84dbbfa4d710144986256c290016f76e/c313d5eea351d56a88256bcc00699931?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2007-05-21. 
  32. J.J. Duncan (2002-11-04). "Film Review: Stellar performers, quirky characters make Salinger rip-off worth seeing". Kansas State Collegian, University Wire. Archived from the original on 2013-01-11. https://archive.is/5kG4C. Retrieved 2007-12-19. "Screenwriting 101: Ripping off Salinger is a quick way of writing a decent movie about teen-age disillusionment." 
  33. Terry Lawson (2002-11-14). "Reviews and ratings of feature films". Detroit Free Press. Archived from the original on 2013-01-10. https://archive.is/gpstD. Retrieved 2007-12-19. ""Catcher in the Rye" gone awry, this angst-filled dark comedy finds a prep-school dropout set adrift in New York City." 
  34. 34.0 34.1 Joe (2004-11-29). "The Laughing Man - Ghost In The Shell: Standalone Complex's Hacker Logo". Otaku News. http://www.otakunews.com/article.php?story=201. Retrieved 2007-12-20. "The brief was very interesting in that I was simply asked to read a short story by J D Salinger 'The Laughing Man' and base a logo around that." 
  35. Lawrence Person (2006-01-15). "DVD Review of Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex". Locus Online. http://www.locusmag.com/2006/Features/Person_GhostInTheShell.html. Retrieved 2007-12-19. 
  36. Sharon Mizota (2004-10-18). "Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex Vol. 02". PopMatters. http://www.popmatters.com/film/reviews/g/ghosts-in-the-shell-2-dvd.shtml. Retrieved 2007-12-19. 
  37. Sharon Mizota (2004-12-22). "Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex Vol. 03". PopMatters. http://www.popmatters.com/film/reviews/g/ghost-in-the-shell-3-dvd.shtml. Retrieved 2007-12-19. 
  38. "Publisher: 'Bully' Video Game Has Positive Message". Fox News (Associated Press). 2006-10-17. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,221759,00.html. Retrieved 2007-05-21. ""Bully" influences came from Hollywood movies [...] and novels like J.D. Salinger's "The Catcher in the Rye" — a coming-of-age book that has been one of the most banned since it was first published more than 50 years ago." 
  39. Whitfield, 570.
  40. Whitfield, 571.
  41. Harry Levins, Susan C. Hegger, Judith Evans (1999-07-04). "Thrillers". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=SL&p_theme=sl&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0EB0519F0B8A5A62&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D. Retrieved 2007-05-21. ""Burglar in the Rye" -- referring to whiskey, in a wry twist -- centers on the planned auction of letters from a reclusive writer who authored a seminal..." 
  42. Ashley Simpson Shires (2005-12-30). "'Barnacles' gets tangled". Rocky Mountain News. http://www.rockymountainnews.com/drmn/books/article/0,2792,DRMN_63_4349766,00.html. Retrieved 2007-05-21. "Niederhoffer nods to Salinger in a reference to The Catcher in the Rye: Bridget and Billy pause on 72nd Street, near the Boat Pond, "pondering Holden's question: where on earth did the ducks go during the winter months?"" 
  43. Alison Flood (2009-05-14). "Catcher in the Rye sequel published – but not by Salinger". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2009/may/14/catcher-in-the-rye-sequel. 
  44. Pat Hathcock (2003-05-05). "New comic strip debuts in today's Advocate". Victoria Advocate. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=VA&p_theme=va&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0FAD78EC6E0A4009&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D. Retrieved 2008-01-04. 
  45. Jung Lah (2001-04-12). "Ataris: End is Forever". The Stanford Daily. http://daily.stanford.edu/article/2001/4/12/atarisEndIsForever. Retrieved 2007-06-08. "The pop culture saturation of the Ataris’ lyrics could get annoying if you’re not into that sort of thing, but, to me, it’s what makes this album stand out. “If You Really Want To Hear About It” references J.D. Salinger’s “Catcher in the Rye”..." 
  46. Chris Heim (1990-02-09). "Billy Joel and the `We Didn't Start the Fire' quiz" (fee required). Chicago Tribune. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/28797913.html?dids=28797913:28797913&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=Feb+09%2C+1990&author=Chris+Heim&pub=Chicago+Tribune+(pre-1997+Fulltext)&desc=Billy+Joel+and+the+%60We+Didn%27t+Start+the+Fire%27+quiz. 
  47. "Rock 'n' roll lessons" (fee required). Batesville Daily Guard. 2005-03-28. http://www.guardonline.com/?q=node/30895. 

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