Koopa Troopa
Game series Mario
Created by Shigeru Miyamoto

Koopa Troopas, known in Japan as Nokonoko, are anthropomorphic turtles and basic enemies in the critically acclaimed Mario platform video games from Nintendo. They first appeared in Mario Bros. in the sewers of New York, which Mario and Luigi along with the other obstacles roaming the area have to defeat. In the direct sequel to the game, Super Mario Bros., it was originally the only enemy to defeat, but due to its lack of simplicity, a new enemy had to be created, which was the Goomba. The video game promoted the idea of both enemies walking around aimlessly in which Mario has to avoid, but instead of being defeated, it closes in on its shell and allows Mario to use it as a projectile[1] (which, furthermore, can also harm Mario).[2].

These creatures appear in other media, such as comics, video game spin-offs and anime. They also are playable in the Mario Kart, debuting with Super Mario Kart, but he did not reprise this role until Mario Kart: Double Dash!!. Another common series is Mario Party, in which players do certain activities.


File:Shigeru Miyamoto at GDC 2007 (cropped).png

The Koopa Troopa was designed and developed by Shigeru Miyamoto and created as a common enemy for the arcade game Mario Bros., which was a means and the response to the popular 1981 platformer Donkey Kong, the debut to the Mario video games after the commercial failure of Radar Scope. The creature is based on a turtle,[3] but the only difference is that they move faster than turtles in reality.

On Mario Bros., they were well received by critics, claiming it a simple attack from the heroic duo. In the successor, Super Mario Bros. consisted only of Koopa Troopas, but a complaint was that the enemy on its own was too hard, so an additional and more easier enemy, the Goomba[4], was created.


  1. Super Mario Bros. Instruction booklet, p. 11.
  2. Super Mario Bros. Instruction booklet, p. 19.
  3. Archive, in search of Koopa Troopa resemblance
  4., Goomba added after Koopa Troopa's high level of difficulty

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