Rape jihad refers to the organized abduction, rape and/or enslavement of non-Muslim women or children by Islamic extremists. The term was used as early as 2004 in descriptions of Darfur and Beslan, and has since been applied to more recent incidents.
It has been claimed that disparaging attitudes toward non-Muslim women and girls are promoted in some mosques and that sexual predation of them is supported in religious text as a form of sexual slavery sanctioned in Koranic scriptures, such as suras 4:24 and 33:50, in which sex is permitted with "Ma malakat aymanukum" (captive women).
In its digital magazine, Dabiq, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) explicitly claimed religious justification for enslaving Yazidi women (see section following). Specifically, ISIL argued that the Yazidi were idol worshipers and appealed to the shariah practice of spoils of war. ISIL asserts that certain Hadith and Koranic verses support their right to enslave and rape captive non-Muslim women. ISIL appealed to apocalyptic beliefs and "claimed justification by a Hadith that they interpret as portraying the revival of slavery as a precursor to the end of the world." According to Dabiq, "enslaving the families of the kuffar and taking their women as concubines is a firmly established aspect of the Sharia’s that if one were to deny or mock, he would be denying or mocking the verses of the Qur'an and the narration of the Prophet … and thereby apostatizing from Islam." In late 2014 ISIL released a pamphlet that focused on the treatment of female slaves. It says fighters are allowed to have sex with adolescent girls and to beat slaves as discipline. The pamphlet's guidelines also allow fighters to trade slaves, including for sex, as long as they have not been impregnated by their owner.
Rape in warEdit
Rape has accompanied warfare in virtually every known historical era. Mass rape of both women or youths regardless of gender was among the punitive measures that might be taken against captured towns by Greek, Persian, or Roman troops. Female slavery and war rapes were also common during the medieval Arab slave trade, where prisoners of war captured in battle from non-Arab lands often ended up as concubine slaves (who are considered free when their master dies). During the Islamic Golden Age, some Muslim jurists writing on military jurisprudence advocated severe penalties for rebels who use "stealth attacks" and practice abductions, poisoning of water wells, arson, attacks against wayfarers and travelers, assaults under the cover of night and rape.
The Lieber Code of 1863 codified the protection of civilians and stated that "all rape...[is] prohibited under the penalty of death" and subsequent laws of war and humanitarian law have made maltreatment of civilians criminal. Slavery was formally abolished in nearly all countries by the mid 20th century, though in the 21st century some Muslim scholars have expressed concern at a "worrying trend" of conservative Salafi Islamic scholars "reopening" the issue of slavery after its "closing" earlier in the 20th century when Muslim countries banned slavery and "most Muslim scholars" found the practice "inconsistent with Qur'anic morality."
Boko Haram Edit
In April 2014, during a raid on Chibok, Boko Haram, an Islamic Jihadist and terrorist organization based in northeast Nigeria, took prisoner several hundred Christian schoolgirls, who, after efforts to secure their release were ineffective, were sold in slave auctions to prospective husbands and forcibly converted to Islam. In May, a video in which Boko Haram leader Abubakar Shekau claimed responsibility for the kidnappings emerged; he claimed, "Allah instructed me to sell them...I will carry out his instructions." and "Slavery is allowed in my religion, and I shall capture people and make them slaves." He said the girls should not have been in school and instead should have been married since girls as young as nine are suitable for marriage.
Throughout the ongoing genocide in the Darfur war in Sudan, there has been a systematic campaign of rape, which has been used as a weapon of war, in the ethnic cleansing of black Africans from the region. The majority of rapes have been carried out by the Sudanese government forces and the Janjaweed ("evil men on horseback") paramilitary groups. The actions of the Janjaweed have been described as genocidal rape, with not just women, but children also being raped, as well as babies being bludgeoned to death and the sexual mutilation of victims being commonplace.
See also: Jacques Martin, "Scandinavian countries face increasing numbers of rape," EU Times (April 4, 2008).
See also: Nicolai Sennels, "Rape jihad in Denmark: More than half of all convicted rapists have immigrant backgrounds. Iraqis, Iranians, Turks and Somalis dramatically overrepresented…," Jihad Watch (July 23, 2012).
According to official statistics, 27.0% of rapes have been committed by foreigners in Finland, who comprise 2.2% of population In contrast, the rape support helpline Tukinainen reports that 6% of all callers and 11% of 10–20-year-old callers say that the rapist was a foreigner. Additionally, Finnish rapists are more likely to be known personally by the victim, increasing the threshold to report. Furthermore, there are great asymmetries between nationalities of rapists.
According to a study done by Martti Lehti et al (2014), 28 percent of the suspects for crimes associated with rape were first generation immigrants while second generation immigrants formed a little less than 1 percent. The number of crimes per immigrant who lives in Finland is almost eight times as high as that of native Finns when looking at rape related crimes. It was also stated that the immigrants originating from Africa and Middle East commit the highest levels of crimes, with the level being seventeen times as high as that of native Finns. The offenses committed by the immigrant groups most often target the natives of the area.
During the period 1997–2001, 25% of the almost 1,520,000 offenses for which a perpetrator was convicted were committed by people born in the Middle East or Eastern Europe, while almost 20% were committed by people with a foreign background who were born in Sweden. Those from North Africa and the Middle East were also overrepresented.
- Fjordman, "Muslim Rape Wave in Sweden," FrontPage Magazine (December 15, 2005).
- Pamela Geller, "Rape Jihad in the West: Muslim rape wave in Sweden" (July 2007).
Child sexual exploitationEdit
UK grooming cases Edit
Widespread organized child sexual abuse took place in many places throughout England, dating from 1997, in which it was conservatively estimated that 1,400 children had been sexually abused in the city, predominantly by gangs of British-Pakistani men. Abuses described included abduction, rape, torture and sex trafficking of children.
See also Edit
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Kern, Soeren (11 July 2013). "Britain: "Rape Jihad" Against Children". Gatestone Institute. http://www.gatestoneinstitute.org/3846/britain-child-grooming. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Spencer, Robert (24 September 2004). "The Rape Jihad". FrontPageMagazine.com. http://archive.frontpagemag.com/readArticle.aspx?ARTID=11278. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
- ↑ Salifu, Uyo (2 October 2013). "Sexual terrorism in Africa: a case of two crimes in one". Institute for Security Studies. http://www.issafrica.org/iss-today/sexual-terrorism-in-africa-a-case-of-two-crimes-in-one. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- ↑ "After love jihad, now rape jihad". Afternoon Voice. 17 October 2014. http://www.afternoonvoice.com/after-love-jihad-now-rape-jihad.html. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- ↑ Greenfield, Daniel (28 August 2014). "Rape Jihad: Inside ISIS’ Harem for Captured Non-Muslim Women". FrontPageMag.com. http://www.frontpagemag.com/2014/dgreenfield/rape-jihad-inside-isis-harem-for-captured-non-muslim-women/. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- ↑ Dean T. Olson (2009). Perfect Enemy: The Law Enforcement Manual of Islamist Terrorism. Charles C Thomas Publisher LTD. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-398-07885-0.
- ↑ Ronald K. Pierce (2014). Islamic Violence in America's Streets. iUniverse. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-49173-681-4.
- ↑ Dixon, Hayley (16 May 2013). "‘Imams promote grooming rings’, Muslim leader claims". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/crime/10061217/Imams-promote-grooming-rings-Muslim-leader-claims.html. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
- ↑ McLoughlin, Peter (March 2014). "“Easy Meat”: Multiculturalism, Islam and Child Sex Slavery". Law and Freedom Foundation. pp. 222-258. http://lawandfreedomfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Easy-Meat-Multiculturalism-Islam-and-Child-Sex-Slavery-05-03-2014.pdf. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 McCarthy, Andrew (3 November 2014). "ISIS and the Rape Jihad". National Review Online. http://www.nationalreview.com/corner/391814/isis-and-rape-jihad-andrew-c-mccarthy. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- ↑ "Islamic State Seeks to Justify Enslaving Yazidi Women and Girls in Iraq". Newsweek. Reuters. 13 October 2014. http://www.newsweek.com/islamic-state-seeks-justify-enslaving-yazidi-women-and-girls-iraq-277100. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
- ↑ Athena Yenko, "Judgment Day Justifies Sex Slavery Of Women – ISIS Out With Its 4th Edition Of Dabiq Magazine" International Business Times-Australia, October 13, 2014[dead link]
- ↑ Allen McDuffee, "ISIS Is Now Bragging About Enslaving Women and Children," The Atlantic, Oct 13 2014
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 Abdelaziz, Salma (13 October 2014). "ISIS states its justification for the enslavement of women". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2014/10/12/world/meast/isis-justification-slavery. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
- ↑ Spencer, Richard (13 October 2014). "Thousands of Yazidi women sold as sex slaves 'for theological reasons', says Isil". The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/islamic-state/11158797/Thousands-of-Yazidi-women-sold-as-sex-slaves-for-theological-reasons-says-Isil.html. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
- ↑ "To have and to hold: Jihadists boast of selling captive women as concubines," The Economist, Oct 18th 2014
- ↑ By AFP, "ISIS jihadists boast of enslaving Yazidi women," Al Arabiya, October 13, 2014
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 Kumar, Anugrah (13 October 2014). "ISIS Claims Islam Justifies Making 'Infidel' Women Sex Slaves". The Christian Post. CHRISTIAN POST CONTRIBUTOR. http://www.christianpost.com/news/isis-claims-islam-justifies-making-infidel-women-sex-slaves-128004. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
- ↑ Sypher, Ford (28 August 2014). "Rape and Sexual Slavery Inside an ISIS Prison". The Daily Beast. Horror. http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/08/28/rape-and-sexual-slavery-inside-an-isis-prison.html. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
- ↑ Nour Malas, "Ancient Prophecies Motivate Islamic State Militants: Battlefield Strategies Driven by 1,400-year-old Apocalyptic Ideas," The Wall Street Journal, November 18, 2014 (accessed November 22, 2014)(subscription required)
- ↑ "ISIL seeks to justify enslaving Yazidi women and girls in Iraq". abril. Today's Zaman. 14 October 2014. http://www.todayszaman.com/national_isil-seeks-to-justify-enslaving-yazidi-women-and-girls-in-iraq_361547.html. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 Amelia Smith, "ISIS Publish Pamphlet On How to Treat Female Slaves," Newsweek, 12/9/2014
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 Abul Taher (13 December 2014). "Our faith condones raping underage slaves: ISIS publishes shocking guidebook telling fighters how to buy, sell and abuse captured women". Daily Mail. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2872884/Our-faith-condones-raping-underage-slaves-ISIS-publishes-shocking-guidebook-telling-fighters-buy-sell-abuse-captured-women.html.
- ↑ 24.0 24.1 Katharine Lackey, "Pamphlet provides Islamic State guidelines for sex slaves," USA Today, December 13, 2014
- ↑ Levinson, Bernard M (2004). Gender and Law in the Hebrew Bible and the Ancient Near East. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-567-08098-1. http://books.google.com/?id=2rZnXQwPX8gC&dq=rape+in+warfare+ancient.
- ↑ On ancient Rome, see Sara Elise Phang, Roman Military Service: Ideologies of Discipline in the Late Republic and Early Principate (Cambridge University Press, 2008), pp. 244, 253–254, 267–268 et passim. See also Sex in the Roman military.
- ↑ "Islam and slavery: Sexual slavery". Bbc.co.uk. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/slavery_1.shtml#section_7. Retrieved 2014-04-30.
- ↑ Abou El Fadl, Khaled. [Commentary: Terrorism Is at Odds With Islamic Tradition]. Muslim Lawyers
- ↑ Askin (1997), pp. 35–36
- ↑ Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Panné, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stéphane Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, 1999, hardcover, 858 pages, ISBN 0-674-07608-7, page 5.
- ↑ Murray Gordon. 'Slavery in the Arab World', New York: New Amsterdam, 1989, p. 234.
- ↑ "Slavery: Mauritania's best kept secret". BBC News. December 13, 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4091579.stm. Retrieved May 5, 2010.
- ↑ Khaled Abou El Fadl and William Clarence-Smith
- ↑ Abou el Fadl, Great Theft, HarperSanFrancisco, c2005.
- ↑ "Islam and Slavery", William G. Clarence-Smith
- ↑ Greenfield, Daniel (3 September 2014). "Rape Jihad: Inside ISIS’ Harem for Captured Non-Muslim Women". Jewish Voice. http://www.jewishvoiceny.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=8449:rape-jihad-inside-isis-harem-for-captured-non-muslim-women&catid=125:iranian-threat&Itemid=331. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
- ↑ Howard LaFranchi (5 May 2014). "What role for US in efforts to rescue Nigeria's kidnapped girls?". CSMonitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Foreign-Policy/2014/0505/What-role-for-US-in-efforts-to-rescue-Nigeria-s-kidnapped-girls-video. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- ↑ "Boko Haram kidnapped the 230 school girls as wives for its insurgents". The Rainbow. 29 April 2014. http://therainbow.com.ng/tabloid/boko-haram-kidnapped-the-230-school-girls-as-wives-for-its-insurgents. Retrieved 6 May 2014. [dead link]
- ↑ Heaton, Laura (30 April 2014). "Nigeria: kidnapped schoolgirls 'sold as wives to Islamist fighters'". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/nigeria/10797454/Nigeria-kidnapped-schoolgirls-sold-as-wives-to-Islamist-fighters.html. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- ↑ 40.0 40.1 "Boko Haram admits abducting Nigeria girls from Chibok". BBC News. 5 May 2014. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-27283383. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- ↑ 41.0 41.1 Lister, Tim (6 May 2014). "Boko Haram: The essence of terror". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2014/05/06/world/africa/nigeria-boko-haram-analysis. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
- ↑ Ball 2011, p. 107.
- ↑ GOMA 2011.
- ↑ Hagan 2005, p. 531.
- ↑ Straus 2005, p. 126.
- ↑ Hirsch 2012.
- ↑ Hashim 2009, p. 226.
- ↑ Rothe 2009, p. 53.
- ↑ Hagan 2005, pp. 525–562.
- ↑ Hannu Niemi. Rikollisuustilanne Suomessa — II.B.3. Oikeuspoliittinen tutkimuslaitos 2005. 
- ↑ Acts of sexual violence as reported to the Tukinainen Rape Crisis Centre helpline (Home - Tuesday 22.8.2000). http://www2.hs.fi/english/archive/news.asp?id=20000822xx4
- ↑ Foreigners figure high in rape statistics (Home - Tuesday 22.8.2000). http://www2.hs.fi/english/archive/news.asp?id=20000822xx3
- ↑ "Maahanmuuttajat Rikosten Uhreina ja Tekijöinä". Tammerprint Oy. 2014. http://www.optula.om.fi/material/attachments/optula/julkaisut/tutkimuksia-sarja/XZ5bk8f2H/265_Lehti_ym_2014.pdf. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- ↑ "Immigrants behind 25% of Swedish crime". thelocal.se. 14 December 2005. http://www.thelocal.se/article.php?ID=2683&date=20051214. Retrieved 17 January 2011.
- ↑ Kern, Soeren (13 July 2013). "Britain's "Rape Jihad" Crisis". RealClearWorld. http://www.realclearworld.com/articles/2013/07/13/britains_rape_jihad_crisis_105316.html. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
- ↑ 56.0 56.1 Jay, Alexis. "Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Exploitation in Rotherham (1997 - 2013)". Rotherham Metropolitan Borough Council. p. 92. http://www.rotherham.gov.uk/downloads/file/1407/independent_inquiry_cse_in_rotherham. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- ↑ "Alexis Jay will lead child abuse failings probe at Rotherham". BBC News. 1 November 2013. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-south-yorkshire-24771229. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- ↑ Saul, Heather (26 August 2014). "Rotherham child abuse report finds 1,400 children subjected to 'appalling' sexual exploitation within 16-year period". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/rotherham-child-abuse-report-finds-1400-children-subjected-to-appalling-sexual-exploitation-within-16year-period-9691825.html. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- ↑ "Rotherham child abuse scandal: 1,400 children exploited, report finds". BBC News. 26 August 2014. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-south-yorkshire-28939089. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- ↑ Dutt, Vijay (27 September 2014). "MYSTERY OF LOVE JIHAD". Uday India. http://www.udayindia.in/english/content_27sept2014/cover-story.html. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- ↑ Smith, Mark (13 March 2013). "English Defence League exploiting sex-grooming fears, says report". The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2013/mar/13/english-defence-league-sex-grooming. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- ↑ Easton, Mark (14 May 2013). "Uncomfortable truths of child exploitation in Britain". BBC.com (BBC). http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-22522232. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|
Archive link: http://web.archive.org/web/20150404160928/https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rape_jihad